Archive for the ‘Health Information’ Category

Know about Hirsutism & Virilization

Hirsutism is growth of excess hairs in females in a male pattern, e.g. growth of beard, mustache, excess hairs in chest and some other parts of the body. Virilization is a type of extreme form of hirsutism where there is also other characters that only males possess, like deepening of voice (male type of voice), clitoris becomes enlarged (clitoris is homologous organ of penis in females), breast becomes small or atrophied, there is increased muscle mass like males etc. In general hirsutism is rarely due to serious underlying pathology, but virilization commonly indicates serious underlying pathology like tumor of adrenal gland or ovary.

The common reason of hirsutism and virilization is excess androgens. And tumors of androgen secreting organs can cause serious form of hirsutism i.e. virilization. Androgens are secreted by adrenal gland and ovaries and neoplasm (benign or malignant) of these organs cause virilization and excess secretion of androgens due to some benign (less serious) cause produces hirsutism.

There are nine areas in humans, that are sensitive to raised level of androgens in blood and when there is increased androgen, the excess hair growth takes place in some or all of these nine areas. The nine areas are upper lip, lower jaw, upper back, lower back, upper arms, chest, abdomen, pelvis and thighs. Some of these areas are highly sensitive to even minor increase in androgen level and some are less sensitive to androgens. This explains why different females with hirsutism have excess hair growth in different androgen sensitive areas.

The important androgens which are mainly responsible for hirsutism are testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS).

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Drug Rehabilitation

Drug addiction is prevalent in most of the regions of the world. The only difference in drug addiction pattern is the addictive drug, which generally vary from a region to other due to the availability of different drugs of addictive nature in a region and the economic condition of the drug addict and the economic development of general population as a whole. The easy availability of a particular drug for addiction can also dictate the drugs used for addiction.

Drug addiction can destroy life of a person (the addicted), as well as an addicted member in a family can destroy the family as well. With proper management drug addiction can be treated successfully and it is possible to keep the drug addict out of drug addiction for rest of his/her life. For drug rehab or drug rehabilitation the most important part is to motivate the drug addict to start treatment for de-addiction. The saying “well began is half done” can not be more true than in case of drug addiction treatment. In fact it can be said that “well begun is more than half done”, because if the drug addict can be truly motivated to get treatment for de-addiction the actual de-addiction becomes very easy. The drug rehab and drug de-addiction success rate of motivated drug addicts is much higher than non motivated drug addicts.

Once the motivation is done by family and friends of the drug addict, the next thing is to find out a suitable drug rehab center which can be trusted for their good service. A good drug rehab center can also motivate the drug addicts to get de-addiction treatment. After finding a suitable drug rehab center it is important to follow all the instructions and programs that drug rehab center has with it.

Treatment of Ovarian Cysts

Most of the ovarian cysts (more than 95%) are benign and only a few of the ovarian cysts are malignant. Benign ovarian cysts in many cases do not produce any symptoms and discovered in routine examination or while performing ultrasonography for identifying some other medical condition. Only some ovarian cysts produce symptoms, which are also non specific like pain in pelvic region, bleeding etc.

The diagnosis of ovarian cyst is generally done either by CT (computerized tomography) scan or ultrasound. Laboratory investigations of ovarian cysts are generally non specific.

As more than 95% of the ovarian cysts are benign (not cancer), the treatment of ovarian cysts generally depends on the size of the cyst and the symptoms it produce (if any). If the ovarian cyst is small and do not produce any symptoms or produce only mild symptoms than the treatment is wait and watch approach with check up at regular interval of every 6 months. The pain (the commonest symptom) of ovarian cyst is treated/managed by common pain relievers like NSAIDs (non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) like ibuprofen, diclofenac, piroxicam etc. Opioid pain relievers are rarely required and have to be used cautiously as they have addiction liability. Pain relievers should be taken at the first sign of pain to get the best effect. Use of hot water bottle or heating pad in the pelvic area can give relief to pain. The treatment of ovarian cyst is essentially conservative if it occurs in women who has not completed their family and in their childbearing age. In post menopausal women and women with completed family, more radical approach like total hysterectomy along with cyst and ovaries can be done, especially if there is history of ovarian cancer in family and if there is ruptured ovarian cyst. Conservative surgeries that preserve the ovaries and only remove the cyst is generally done for women with small, benign cyst and if the woman is in childbearing age and desirous to have children in future.

Online Pharmacy

Going online is a new trend. Every field is going online or already online. Pharmacy is such a field which is using internet to promote business since very long time. There are many advantages of online pharmacy, like anyone can buy a medicine which he/she may need. You need not to go out to buy the medicine with a prescription which is time consuming and may be expensive (sometimes more expensive than online purchase). You can also chose the medicine from a good reputed company, to be sure of the quality of the medicine.

There is no end to the list of medicines you can buy online. Some of the popular online medicines are nutritional supplements, antibiotics for common infections like Keflex online (for treatment of gonorrhea, staphylococcal skin infection, streptococcal infection), vitamins, antioxidants to name only a few. Best selling medical products online are diet and nutritional supplements, laxatives etc.

But you should be careful in choosing the company or website from where you buy your required medications. The most important aspect of medicine is the quality of the product (best quality is the one which contain what it is supposed to contain in right quantity and right quality). To ensure the quality of you online medicines, you should always stick to the best companies and trusted websites. You should not go for the cheaper medicine to save some bucks, which may be the cause of your harm in terms of health as well as in terms of draining your pocket. You should buy medicines online from the same site everytime.

Brain Training: an Introduction

A new subject is slowly gaining popularity in the field of medicine, which is brain training and various companies are promoting this brain training by developing sophisticated software. These neurotechnology companies develop software for brain training and market them. The brain training software train in brain fitness (keep the brain healthy as well as sharp in terms of memory power, peak performance, academic skills, mind concentrating ability etc.). The new brain training software are meant for optimal brain health, better memory power, better attentiveness, peak performance, good academic skills etc.

Many websites as well as many companies are marketing the brain training programs and internet has made this job much easier for these companies. Many brain training programs are available in the internet, which is regarded as gymnasium of the mind and brain (as we keep our body fit by training in the gym, by doing brain training we keep our brain and mind fit). The websites which provide brain training, can make your brain function more efficiently and also can help your mind to process information very quickly.

Benefits of brain training:

There are many benefits of training your brain at brain training sites or with brain training software. You will be able to do multiple tasks at a time after brain training, your efficiency improves, your concentration ability improves, your memory become better as well your attention. You can become a smarter person with brain training. These are just few benefits of brain training, as there are many more benefits.

Structure of WHO

The WHO consists of three principal organs: (i) the World Health Assembly, (ii) the Executive Board and (iii) the Secretariat.

(1) The world Health Assembly: This is the “Health Parliament” of nations and the supreme governing body of the organization. It meets annually, generally in the month of May, and generally at the headquarters in Geneva. But from time to time it meets in other countries. The 14th World Health Assembly met in New Delhi in 1961 for example. The Assembly is composed of delegates who represent Member States; each member state has one vote. The main functions of the health Assembly are: (i) To determine international health policy and programme. (ii) To review the work of the past year. (iii) to approve the budget needed for the following year and (iv) to elect Member States to designate a person to serve for three years on the Executive Board and to replace the retiring members. The Health Assembly also appoints the Director General on the recommendation of the Executive Board. It is now the practice to organize on the occasion of each Health Assembly, “technical discussions” on some subjects of world interest.

(2) The Executive Board:

The Board at present has 31 members. The Health Assembly (1976) increased the membership from 30 to 31, to provide no fewer than 3 (three) members of the Board who are “technically qualified in the field of health “. They are designated by, but do not represent their governments. One third of the membership is renewed every year. The Executive Board meets at least twice a year in January and shortly after the meeting of the World Health Assembly in May. The main work of the Board is to give effect to the decisions and policies of the Assembly. The Board also has power to take action itself in an emergency, such as epidemics, earth-quakes and floods where immediate action is needed.

(3) The secretariat:

The secretariat is headed by the Director General who is the chief technical and administrative officer of the Organization. The primary function of the WHO secretariat is to provide Member States with technical managerial support for their national health policies. While in 1948, WHO staff counted 250 persons, but at present the staffs count of WHO is more than 5,000. At WHO headquarters in Geneva, there are 5 Assistant Director Generals each of whom is responsible for the work of such divisions as may from time to time be assigned to him by the director General. The WHO Secretariat comprised of the following divisions.

(1) Division of Epidemiological surveillance and Health situation and trend assessment.

(2) Division of Communicable Diseases

(3) Division of Vector Biology and Control

(4) Division id Environmental Health

(5) Division of Public information and education for health

(6) Division of Mental Health

(7) Division of diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitative technology

(8) Division of Strengthening of Health services

(9) Division of Family Health

(10) Division of Non-communicable Diseases

(11) Division of Health Manpower Development

(12) Division of information Systems Support

(13) Division of Personnel and General Services

(14) Division of Budget and Finance

The Regions:

In order to meet the special health needs of different areas, WHO have established six regional organizations:

Regional Organizations WHO

Region

Headquarter

1.South East Asia

New Delhi(India)

2. Africa

Brazzaville(Congo)

3. The Americas

Washington D.C(USA)

4. Europe

Copenhagen (Denmark)

5. Eastern Mediterranean

Alexandria(Egypt)

6. Western Pacific

Manila(Philippines)

The regional headquarters are integral part of WHO. They play an important role in implementing the WHO policies. The regional office is headed by a regional director, who is assisted by a technical and administrative team. There is a regional committee composed of representatives of member states in the region. The regional committee meets once a year to review the health work in the region.

The Works of WHO

World Health Organization’s (WHO) first Constitutional function is to act as the directing and coordinating authority on all international health work. This function permits WHO’s Member States to identify collectively the priority health problems throughout the world. WHO decides the collective health policies, device strategies to deal with them and try to attain them. The WHO also has specific responsibilities for establishing and promoting international standards in the field of health, which comprise the following broad areas:

(1) Prevention and control of specific diseases:

Almost all communicable diseases are or have been at sometime the subject of WHO activities. The global eradication of small pox is the brightest example of international health cooperation. With the same energy and commitment with which WHO eradicated smallpox, it is now directing the global battle against AIDS.

An important activity of WHO is epidemiological surveillance of communicable diseases. The WHO collects and disseminates epidemiological information on diseases subject to international Health Regulations through an Automatic Telex Reply Service (ATRS) and the “Weekly Epidemiological Record” (WER). The “Weekly Epidemiological Record” (WER) contains more complete details and brief reviews of communicable diseases of international importance. Anyone can also make use of the “WHO Emergency Scheme for Epidemics” whenever necessary. The aim of international Health Regulations is to ensure maximum security against international spread of diseases with the minimum interference with world traffic. This means if a communicable disease is absent in an area e.g. yellow fever absent in Asia, so when a traveler is visiting Asia from yellow fever endemic area he require to be vaccinated against yellow fever.

The WHO also pays attention in such diseases as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, genetic disorders, mental disorders, drug addiction and dental diseases. The WHO also give importance to vector biology and control, quality control of drugs and biological products, drug evaluation and monitoring, immunology and health laboratory technology.

Immunization against common diseases of childhood (Expanded Programme on Immunization) is now a priority programme of WHO.

(2) Development of comprehensive heath services:

WHO’s most important single function is to promote and support national health policy development and the development of comprehensive national health programmes. The broad field covers a wide variety of activities such as organizing health systems based on primary health care, the development of health manpower and utilization, building of long-term national capability, particularly in the areas of health infrastructure development, and managerial capabilities (including monitoring and evaluation) and health services research. Appropriate Technology for Health (ATH) is another new programme launched by the WHO to encourage self sufficiency in solving health problems. This is part of WHO’s efforts to build up primary health care.

(3) Environmental Health:

Promotion of environmental health is an impotent activity of WHO. It advises governments on national programmes for the provision of basic sanitary services. WHO also directs about protection of the quality of air, water and food, health conditions of work, radiation protection and early identification of new hazards originating from new technological developments. A number of programmes have been developed such as the ‘WHO Environmental Health Criteria Programme’ for improving environmental health.

(4) Bio-Medical Research:

The WHO does not itself do research, but coordinates,finance and stimulate research work. It has established a worldwide network of WHO collaborating centres, besides awarding grants to research workers and research institutions for promoting research. There are Regional Advisory Committees on health research, which decides regional health research priorities. A Global committee deals with policy issues of global importance. Six tropical diseases (malaria, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, filariasis, leishmaniasis and leprosy) are the target of the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases to develop new tools, strengthen research institutions and training of workers in the countries affected.

(5) Health statistics:

From its days of 1947, WHO has been concerned with the dissemination of a wide variety of morbidity and mortality statistics relating to health problems. The data is published in the (i) weekly Epidemiological Record (ii) quarterly Worlds Health Statistics and (iii) Annual World Health Statistics. Anyone who is interested in current data may obtain it from the Chief Statistician, Dissemination of Statistical Information, WHO, Geneva. In order to standardize statistics from different countries WHO publishes ‘International Classification of Diseases’ which is brought up to date every 10 years. Assistance is also given to countries in the improvement of their medical records and in the planning and operating national health information systems.

(6) Family health:

Family health is one of the major activities of WHO since 1970, and is broadly subdivided into maternal and child health care, human reproduction, nutrition and health education. The main concern is the improvement of the quality of life of the family as a unit.

(7) Health Literature and Information:

WHO acts as a clearing house for information on health problems. Its publications comprise hundreds of titles on a wide variety of health subjects. The WHO library is one of the satellite centers of the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) of the USA. It is fully computerized indexing system covering the whole of medicine on an international basis. The WHO has also a public information service both at headquarters and each of the six regional offices.

(8) Cooperation with other organizations:

WHO collaborates with the UN and with the other specialized agencies like UNICEF and FAO and maintains various degrees of working relationships. Besides, WHO has also established relations with a number of international governmental organizations.